What is the bird flu?
Avian influenza is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus. All birds are thought to be susceptible to infection with avian influenza, though some species are more resistant to infection than others. Migratory waterfowl – most notably wild ducks – are the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses, and these birds are also the most resistant to infection. Domestic poultry, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, are particularly susceptible to epidemics of rapidly fatal influenza. There are many different subtypes of type A influenza viruses. Influenza A viruses are constantly changing, and they might adapt over time to infect and spread among humans.
Infection causes a wide spectrum of symptoms in birds, ranging from mild illness to a highly contagious and rapidly fatal disease resulting in severe epidemics. The latter is known as “highly pathogenic avian influenza”. This form is characterized by sudden onset, severe illness, and rapid death, with a mortality that can approach 100%.
Avian influenza viruses do not
normally infect species other than birds and pigs. The first
documented infection of humans with an avian influenza virus
occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, when the H5N1 strain caused severe
respiratory disease in 18 humans, of whom 6 died. The infection of
humans coincided with an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian
influenza, caused by the same strain, in Hong Kong’s poultry
Conditions favorable for the emergence of antigenic shift have long been thought to involve humans living in close proximity to domestic poultry and pigs. Because pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and mammalian viruses, including human strains, they can serve as a “mixing vessel” for the scrambling of genetic material from human and avian viruses, resulting in the emergence of a novel subtype. Recent events, however, have identified a second possible mechanism. Evidence is mounting that, for at least some of the 15 avian influenza virus subtypes circulating in bird populations, humans themselves can serve as the “mixing vessel”.
All type A
influenza viruses, including those that regularly cause seasonal
epidemics of influenza in humans, are genetically labile and well
adapted to elude host defenses. Influenza viruses lack mechanisms
for the “proofreading” and repair of errors that occur during
replication. As a result of these uncorrected errors, the genetic
composition of the viruses changes as they replicate in humans and
animals, and the existing strain is replaced with a new antigenic
variant. These constant, permanent and usually small changes in the
antigenic composition of influenza A viruses are known as antigenic
quarantining of infected farms and destruction of infected or
potentially exposed flocks are standard control measures aimed at
preventing spread to other farms and eventual establishment of the
virus in a country’s poultry population. Apart from being highly
contagious, avian influenza viruses are readily transmitted from
farm to farm by mechanical means, such as by contaminated equipment,
vehicles, feed, cages, or clothing. Highly pathogenic viruses can
survive for long periods in the environment, especially when
temperatures are low. Stringent sanitary measures on farms can,
however, confer some degree of protection.
How does it kill pathogens Now we are getting into an area that is not nearly as clear cut as the above. That is does kill microbes, and disable viruses is a fact, but how does it is still up to dispute. The following are some theories Silver particles are an oxidizing catalyst, and as such oxidize pathogens killing them . This is how H2O2 works as well Silver interferes with the microbe's respiration Silver ties up or disables the sulfur in the microbe Silver short out the electrostatic fields in the cell Most of the above would not apply to viruses though. Instead the possibilities for disabling viruses are Silver particles are an oxidizing catalyst and oxidize the virus killing it Silver causes the virus DNA or RNA to revert back to being undifferentiated ,and without the proper expression for that host is disabled Silver repairs the broken (segment of) DNA of a virus, making it complete , but no longer a functional virus which by design has an incomplete DNA
Nanocid colloid and composite that are produced based on Nanosilver particles , have vast properties for applying in industries related to training and keeping all kinds of birds , in this regards we can list the following: